Tafsir 114, 113, 112

Surah An-Nas [114] (The Mankind)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

1. “Say: ‘I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind”

2. “The King of mankind”

3. “The God of mankind”

(1-3) This Surah describes three Attributes of Allah the All-Mighty. He gives sustenance to mankind, He is Sovereign and He is Worthy of worship. All things are created by Him, possessed by Him, and subservient to Him. He commands anyone who wants refuge to seek in it the Lord who has these Attributes.

4. “From the evil of the whisperer”

(4) Satan entices people to commit sins as he makes evil attractive to men. Only Allah can grant protection from the evil of Satan. According to a Hadith, the Prophet said, “With everyone of you there is a devil.” The Companions asked, “Is there a devil even with you?” The Prophet said, “Yes, but Allah has granted me protection against him.”

Al-Bukhari and Muslim report that once when the Prophet was in seclusion (i’tikaf) in the mosque, his wife Safiyyah went to see him. When she left, the Prophet accompanied her to his house. On the way he met two Companions from Ansar who were passing by. They sped up their pace when they saw him. He called them and said, “This is my wife Safiyyah bint Huyay.”They said, “Subhanallah! O Messenger of Allah, why are you saying this?” The Prophet said,“Satan flows inside man like blood. I feared, may be he put bad thoughts about me in your minds.”

Al-Hafidh Abu Ya’la Musily quoted a Hadith which reported the Prophet as saying:

“Satan puts his hand on the heart of man. If he celebrates the remembrance of Allah he removes his hand and if he forgets Allah, Satan overcomes his heart fully. This is the ‘evil of the whisperer.’

Ahmad ibn Hanbal reported a Hadith: The Prophet was once riding a mule and a Companion was riding behind him on it. The mule stumbled. The Companion spontaneously uttered, “May Satan perish.” The Prophet says, “Do not say that. It encourages Satan,” and he said, “I knocked him with my strength. But if you say, ‘In the name of Allah’ he is dwarfed and becomes like a fly.”This proves that the remembrance of Allah helps overcome Satan while leaving it augments his power.

Ibn ‘Abbas, says that the Satan is lying in wait for man. When he forgets Allah, he starts whispering, and when he begins the remembrance of Allah, he retreats.

Sulayman said: “I am told that in happiness and sorrow Satan bores into the heart of man, i.e., he deludes him. If man remembers Allah, he flees away.” Ibn ‘Abbas, also says that Satan preaches evil and when man obeys him, he leaves him.

5. “Who whispers in the breasts of mankind”

6. “Of jinn and men.”

(5,6) The expression “Who whispers in the breasts of mankind” may be interpreted in two ways. One interpretation is that Satan whispers in the chests of people belonging to the human race or the race of jinn. The other interpretation is that the devils from among the human race and the jinn whisper in the chests of other people. At another place Allah says:

“And so We appointed for every Prophet an enemy – devils among mankind and jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion … “

Al-Qur’an 6:112

Abu Dharr reported that once he went to the mosque and sat with the Prophet. He asked me,“Did you pray?” When I said no, he said, “Offer two rak’ah.” When I again sat after finishing the prayer, he said, “Abu Dharr, seek refuge against the devils among men and jinn.” I asked, “Are there devils among men also?” He said, “Yes.” I asked him, “O Messenger of Allah, which is the greatest verse in the Qur’an?” He said, “The Verse of the Throne – (2:255).” [Imam Ahmad. ThisHadith has also been reported by Nasa’i, Abu Hatim and others]

Surah An-Falaq [113] (Daybreak)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

1. Say: “I seek refuge with the Lord of the daybreak”

Jabir says that Falaq means morning. The Qur’an itself says “cleaver of the daybreak” [Al-Qur’an 6:96]. Ibn ‘Abbas says that Falaq means creation. Ka’ab al-Ahbar says that Falaq is a place in the Hell. When its gate is opened all the inmates of Hell cry out because of the intensity of its heat. Ibn Jarir and Imam Bukhari say that it means morning and this view seems reasonable. Allah directs believers to seek refuge in the Lord of the Falaq.

2. “From the evil of what He has created”

And to seek refuge from the evil of what He created. His creation includes Hell, Iblis (Satan) and his offspring.

3. “And from the evil of the darkening as it comes with its darkness,

One should seek refuge from the evil of nightfall. According to Ibn Zayd the Arabs called the setting of the star Pleiad as Ghasiq and believed that after its setting and at its rising, disease increases and spreads. Some commentators say that the word Ghasiq means moon. They base their argument on a Hadith that the Prophet a once held the hand of ‘A’ishah and pointing to the moon, said, “Seek refuge from the evil of this Ghasiq.” [Imam Ahmad]. However, the rising of the moon and the appearance of the stars are things that happen at night.

4. “And from the evil of those who practise witchcraft when they blow in the knots,

5. “And from the evil of the envier when he envies.”

” … witchcrafts when they blow in the knots” refers to sorceresses. Mujahid says that such incantations are nearest to polytheism as are made to blow on a snake bite or magic stricken man. A Hadith says that Gabriel came to the Prophet and said, “O Muhammad! Are you sick?” When the Prophet said yes, he said, “Invoke the Name of Allah against every disease that pains you, against the evil of every envier and against any evil eye. May Allah heal you.” The disease referred to in this Hadith was probably a magic spell. Allah healed His Messenger and repelled that magic.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal reported that a Jew bewitched the Prophet and then he remained under its spell for several days. Then Gabriel came to him and informed him that such and such Jew had enchanted him and has hidden a knoted rope in such and such well. He asked him to send somebody to get it. The Prophet sent someone to bring them back, untied them, and the spell was broken. The Prophet never mentioned it to that Jew nor showed him any anger.

Bukhari reported a Hadith from ‘A’ishah. She narrated that when the Prophet was bewitched under a magic spell, he thought that he came to his wives while he had not done so. Once he said to me, “I asked my Lord and He showed me. Two persons came and one sat near my head and the other near my legs. The man sitting near my head asked the other, ‘What has happened to this man.’ He said, ‘He is under the a spell.’ He asked, ‘Who bewitched him?’ He answered, ‘Labid ibn A’sim from the Bani Zurayq tribe. They are allies of the Jews.’ The man asked, ‘What has charmed?’ The other answered, ‘The comb and the hair.’ He asked, ‘Where are those things?’ ‘In the well of Dharwan, under a rock.’ “ The Prophet sent ‘Ali to the well and had the things dug out. I (‘A’ishah) suggested that the magician should be punished. The Prophet said, “Praise is for Allah. He healed me. Now I do not like to incite people for me.”

 From Tafsir Ibn Kathir (abridged). Translation by Habib Badr.

Surah Al-Ikhlas Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Reason for the Revelation of this Surah and its Virtues Print E-mail
Imam Ahmad recorded from Ubayy bin Ka`b that the idolators said to the Prophet , “O Muhammad! Tell us the lineage of your Lord.” So Allah revealed

﴿قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ – اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ –

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ – وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ ﴾

(1. Say: “He is Allah”) (2. “One”.) (3. “He begets not, nor was He begotten”.) (4. “And there is non comparable to Him.”) Similar was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir and they added in their narration that he said,

﴿الصَّمَدُ﴾

(As-Samad) is One Who does not give birth, nor was He born, because there is nothing that is born except that it will die, and there is nothing that dies except that it leaves behind inheritance, and indeed Allah does not die and He does not leave behind any inheritance.

﴿وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ ﴾

(And there is none comparable to Him.) This means that there is none similar to Him, none equal to Him and there is nothing at all like Him.” Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded it and At-Tirmidhi mentioned it as a Mursal narration. Then At-Tirmidhi said, “And this is the most correct.”

A Hadith on its Virtues Print E-mail
Al-Bukhari reported from `Amrah bint `Abdur-Rahman, who used to stay in the apartment of `A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet , that `A’ishah said, “The Prophet sent a man as the commander of a war expedition and he used to lead his companions in prayer with recitation (of the Qur’an). And he would complete his recitation with the recitation of `Say: He is Allah, One.’ So when they returned they mentioned that to the Prophet and he said,

«سَلُوهُ لِأَيِّ شَيْءٍ يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ؟»

(Ask him why does he do that.) So they asked him and he said, `Because it is the description of Ar-Rahman and I love to recite it. So the Prophet said,

«أَخْبِرُوهُ أَنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يُحِبُّه»

(Inform him that Allah the Most High loves him.)” This is how Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in his Book of Tawhid. Muslim and An-Nasa’i also recorded it. In his Book of Salah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, “A man from the Ansar used to lead the people in prayer in the Masjid of Quba’. Whenever he began a Surah in the recitation of the prayer that he was leading them, he would start by reciting `Say: He is Allah, One’ until he completed the entire Surah. Then he would recite another Surah along with it (after it). And used to do this in every Rak`ah. So his companions spoke to him about this saying; `Verily, you begin the prayer with this Surah. Then you think that it is not sufficient for you unless you recite another Surah as well. So you should either recite it or leave it and recite another Surah instead.’ The man replied, `I will not leave it off. If you want me to continue leading you (in prayer), I will do this; and if you all do not like it, I will leave you (i.e., I will stop leading you).’ They used to consider him to be of the best of them to lead them in prayer and they did not want anyone else to lead them other than him. So, when the Prophet came they informed him of this information and he said,

«يَا فُلَانُ، مَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ مَا يَأْمُرُكَ بِهِ أَصْحَابُكَ، وَمَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى لُزُوم هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ فِي كُلِّ رَكْعَةٍ؟»

(O so-and-so! What prevents you from doing what your companions are commanding you to do, and what makes you adhere to the recitation of this Surah in every Rak`ah) The man said, `Verily, I love it.’ The Prophet replied,

«حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا أَدْخَلَكَ الْجَنَّة»

(Your love of it will cause you to enter Paradise.) This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, with a disconnected chain, but in a manner indicating his approval.

A Hadith that mentions this Surah is equivalent to a Third of the Qur’an Print E-mail
Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id that a man heard another man reciting

﴿قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ﴾

(Say: “He is Allah, One.”) and he was repeating over and over. So when morning came, the man went to the Prophet and mentioned that to him, and it was as though he was belittling it. The Prophet said,

«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ إِنَّهَا لَتَعْدِلُ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآن»

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul, verily it is equivalent to a third of the Qur’an.) Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i also recorded it. Another Hadith Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said to his Companions,

«أَيَعْجِزُ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَقْرَأَ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ فِي لَيْلَةٍ»

(Is one of you not able to recite a third of the Qur’an in a single night) This was something that was difficult for them and they said, “Which of us is able to do that, O Messenger of Allah” So he replied,

«اللهُ الْوَاحِدُ الصَّمَدُ ثُلُثُ الْقُرْآن»

(“Allah is the One, As-Samad” is a third of the Qur’an.) Al-Bukhari was alone in recording this Hadith.

Another Hadith that its Recitation necessitates Admission into Paradise Print E-mail
Imam Malik bin Anas recorded from `Ubayd bin Hunayn that he heard Abu Hurayrah saying, “I went out with the Prophet and he heard a man reciting `Say: He is Allah, the One.’ So the Messenger of Allah said,

«وَجَبَت»

(It is obligatory.) I asked, `What is obligatory’ He replied,

«الْجَنَّة»

(Paradise.)” At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded it by way of Malik, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih Gharib. We do not know of it except as a narration of Malik.” The Hadith in which the Prophet said,

«حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا أَدْخَلَكَ الْجَنَّة»

(Your love of it will cause you to enter Paradise.) has already been mentioned.

A Hadith about repeating this Surah Print E-mail
`Abdullah bin Imam Ahmad recorded from Mu`adh bin `Abdullah bin Khubayb, who reported that his father said, “We became thirsty and it had become dark while we were waiting for the Messenger of Allah to lead us in prayer. Then, when he came out he took me by my hand and said,

«قُل»

(Say.) Then he was silent. Then he said again,

«قُل»

(Say.) So I said, `What should I say’ He said,

﴿قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ﴾

وَالْمُعَوِّذَتَيْنِ حِينَ تُمْسِي وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُ ثَلَاثًا، تَكْفِكَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مَرَّتَيْن»

(Say: “He is Allah, One,” and the two Surahs of Refuge (Al-Falaq and An-Nas) when you enter upon the evening and the morning three times (each). They will be sufficient for you two times every day.)” This Hadith was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih Gharib.”

 

 

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